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43. Structure determination of biogenic crystals directly from 3D electron diffraction data

Avital Wagner, Johannes Merkelbach, Laura Samperisi, Noam Pinsk, Benson M Kariuki, Colan E Hughes, Kenneth DM Harris, B. A. Palmer, 

Crystal Growth &


42. Brilliant whiteness in shrimp from ultra-thin layers of birefringent nanospheres

Tali Lemcoff, Lotem Alus, Johannes S Haataja, Avital Wagner, Gan Zhang, Mariela J Pavan, Venkata Jayasurya Yallapragada, Silvia Vignolini, Dan Oron, Lukas Schertel, B. A. Palmer 

Nature Photonics, 2023,

41. Lizards exploit the changing optics of developing chromatophore cells to switch defensive colors during ontogeny 

G. Zhanga, V. J. Yallapragada, T. Halperind, A. Wagnera, M. Shemesh, A. Upcherf, I. Pinkasg, Harry L. O. McClellandh, D. Hawlenad, B. A. Palmer,

40. Brilliant whiteness in shrimp from ultra-thin layers of birefringent nanospheres

T. LemcoffL. AlusJ. S. HaatajaA. WagnerG. ZhangM. J. PavanV. J. YallapragadaS. VignoliniD. OronL. SchertelB. A. Palmer, Nature

39. A tunable reflector enabling crustaceans to see but not be seen 

K. Shavit, A. Wagner, L. Schertel, V. Farstey, D. Akkaynak, G. Zhang, A. Upcher, A. Sagi, V. Jayasurya Yallapragada, J. Haataja, B. A. Palmer, Science2023doi: 10.1126/science.add4099

38. Macromolecular sheets direct the morphology and orientation of plate-like biogenic guanine crystals

A. Wagner, A. Upcher, R. Maria, T. Magnesen, E. Zelinger, G. Raposo, B. A. Palmer, Nature Communications



37. The Non‐Classical Crystallization Mechanism of a Composite Biogenic Guanine Crystal

A. Wagner, V. Ezersky, R. Maria, A. Upcher, E.D. Aflalo, Y. Lubin, B. A. Palmer, Advanced Materials

36. Biogenic Guanine Crystals Are Solid Solutions of Guanine and Other Purine Metabolites

N. Pinsk, A. Wagner, L. Cohen, Christopher J. H. Smalley, C. E. Hughes, G. Zhang,
M. J. Pavan, N. Casati, A. Jantschke, G. Goobes, Kenneth D. M. Harris and B. A. Palmer, JACS



35. Functional Molecular Crystals in Biology

A. Wagner, Q. Wen, N. Pinsk, B. A. Palmer, Israel Journal of Chemistry

34. Measuring the optical properties of nanoscale biogenic spherulites

L. M. Beck, V. J. Yallapragada, A. Upcher, B. A. Palmer, L. Addadi, and D. Oron, Optics Express,

33. Organic crystals in animal coloration and vision 

K. Shavit, V.J. Yallapragada, S. Weiner, D. Oron, A. Sagi, L. Addadi, B. A. Palmer, Integrative and Comparative Biology 61, 2021,

32. Reinforcement of bio-apatite by zinc substitution in the incisor tooth of a prawn

S. Bentov, B. A. Palmer, B. Bar-On, Y. Shelef, E.D. Aflalo, A. Sagi, Acta Biomaterialia 120,  2021,


31. Natural Photonic Structures from Birefringent Core-Shell Nanoparticles

V. J. Yallapragada, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, D. Oron, and B. A. Palmer  Optics and Photonics News 31(12),

30. Characterization and Possible Function of an Enigmatic Reflector in the Eye of the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

N. Schiffmann,   E. Merary Wormser,   V. Brumfeld,   Y. Addadi,   I. Pinkas,   J. V. Yallapragada,   E. Aflalo,   A. Sagi,   B. A. Palmer,   S. Weiner , L. Addadi  Faraday Transactions,

29. A Highly Reflective Biogenic Photonic Material from Core-Shell Birefringent Nanoparticles

B. A. Palmer, V. J. Yallapragada, N. Schiffmann, E. Merary Wormser, N. Elad, E.D. Aflalo, A. Sagi, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, D. Oron, Nature Nanotechnology, 2020doi:10.1038/s41565-019-0609-5.

Highlighted in Nature Nanotechnology News and Views, Nature Photonics, Nature Bioengineering Blog, Times of Israel, Ynet.



28. Guanine and 7,8-dihydroxanthopterin reflecting crystals in the zander fish eye: crystal locations, compositions, and structures

G. Zhang, A. Hirsch, G. Shmul, L. Avram, N. Elad, V. Brumfeld, I. Pinkas, Y. Feldman, R. Ben Asher, B. A. Palmer, L. Kronik, L. Leiserowitz, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2019, 141, 19736-19745.

27. Animal Eyes: Filtering out the Background

V. J. Yallapragada, B. A. Palmer, Curr. Biol. 2019, 29, R938-R941.

animal eyes.jpg

26. Reply to comment on Couzi et al. (2018): a phenomenological model for structural phase transitions in incommensurate alkane/urea inclusion compounds

K. Christensen, P.A. Williams, R. Patterson, B. A. Palmer, M. Couzi, F. Guillaume, K.D.M. Harris, R. Soc. Open. Sci. 2019, 6, 190518.

25. Structure and Morphology of Light-Reflecting Synthetic and Biogenic Polymorphs of Isoxanthopterin: A Comparison

A. Hirsch, B. A. Palmer, A. Ramasubramaniam, P.A. Williams, K.D.M. Harris, B. Pokroy, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, L. Leiserowitz, L. Kronik, Chem. Mater., 2019, 31, 4479-4489.

24. Spatially Resolved Mapping of Phase Transitions in Liquid Crystalline Materials by X-ray Birefringence Imaging

Y. Zhou, R. Patterson, B. A. Palmer, G.R. Edwards-Gau, B.M. Kariuki, S. Nambalan Sivaraman, D. W. Bruce, I.P. Dolbnya, S.P. Collins, A. Malandain, K.D.M. Harris, Chemical Science 2019, 10, 3005-3011.



23. Crystallization of Organic Molecules: Nonclassical Mechanism Revealed by Direct Imaging

Y. Tsarfati, S. Rosenne, H. Weissman, L. J. W. Shimon, D. Gur, B. A. Palmer, B. Rybtchinski, ACS Central Science 2018, 4, 1031-1036.

22. The Organic Crystalline Materials of Vision: Structure-function Considerations from the Nanometer to the Millimeter scale

B. A. Palmer, D. Gur, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, D. Oron, Adv. Mater. 2018, 30, e1800006.


21. Optically Functional Isoxanthopterin Crystals in the Mirrored Eyes of Decapod Crustaceans

B. A. Palmer, A. Hirsch, V. Brumfeld, N. Elad, D. Oron, L. Kronik, L. Leiserowitz, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2018, 115, 2299-2304.



20. The Image-Forming Mirror in the Eye of the Scallop

B. A. Palmer, G.J. Taylor, V. Brumfeld, D. Gur, M. Shemesh, N. Elad, A. Osherov, D. Oron, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, Science 2017, 358, 1172-1175.

Highlighted in the New York Times, Chemical & Engineering News,, The Atlantic, The Independent, The Daily Mail & others

scallop paper.png

19. Biologically Controlled Morphology and Twinning in Guanine Crystals

A. Hirsch, B. A. Palmer, D. Gur, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, L. Kronik, L. Leiserowitz, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2017, 56, 9420-9424.


18. Koi Fish Scale Iridophore Cells Orient Guanine Crystals to Maximize Light Reflection

N. Funt, B. A. Palmer, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, ChemPlusChem, 2017, 82, 914-923.

17. Light Manipulation by Guanine Crystals in Organisms: Biogenic Scatterers, Mirrors, Multilayer Reflectors and Photonic Crystals

D. Gur, B. A. Palmer, S. Weiner, L. Addadi, Adv. Func. Mater. 2017, 10, 1603514.


16. The True Structural Periodicities and Superspace Group Descriptions of the Prototypical Incommensurate Composite Materials: Alkane/urea Inclusion Compounds

M. Couzi, F. Guillaume, K.D.M. Harris, B. A. Palmer, K. Christensen, S.P. Collins, Europhys. Lett. 2016, 116, 56001.

15. Determining Molecular Orientations in Disordered Materials from X-ray Linear Dichroism at the Iodine L1-Edge

B. A. Palmer, S.P. Collins, J. Hulliger, K.D.M. Harris, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2016, 138, 16188-16191.

14. Novel Technique for Spatially Resolved Imaging of Molecular Bond Orientations using X-ray Birefringence

J.P. Sutter, I.P. Dolbnya, S.P. Collins, K.D.M. Harris, G.R. Edwards-Gau, B.M. Kariuki, B. A. Palmer, AIP Conf. Proc. 2016, 1741, 0500009.


13. The Mechanism of Color Change in the Neon Tetra Fish: a Light-Induced Tunable Photonic Crystal Array

D. Gur, B. A. Palmer, B. Leshem, D. Oron, P. Fratzl, S. Weiner, L. Addadi. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2015, 54, 12426-124301.

Highlighted in Phys.Org.

12. Theoretical analysis of the background intensity distribution in X-ray Birefringence Imaging using synchrotron bending-magnet radiation

J. Sutter, I.P. Dolbnya, S.P. Collins, G.R.E. Edwards-Gau, K.D.M. Harris, B. A. Palmer. J. Appl. Phys., 2015, 117, 164902.

11. X-ray birefringence Imaging of Materials with Anisotropic Molecular Dynamics

B. A. Palmer, G.R.E. Edwards-Gau, B.M. Kariuki, K.D.M. Harris, I.P. Dolbnya, S.P. Collins, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2015, 6, 561-657.


10. X-ray birefringence Imaging

B. A. Palmer, G.R.E. Edwards-Gau, B.M. Kariuki, K.D.M. Harris, I.P. Dolbnya, S.P. Collins. Science 2014, 344, 1013-1016.

Highlighted in Science Perspectives, Chemical & Engineering News, The Engineer, Phys.Org and Diamond Annual Review 2015


8. X-ray Birefringence in Highly Anisotropic Materials

S.P. Collins, I.P. Dolbnya, B. A. Palmer, G.R.E. Edwards-Gau, A. Morte-Rodenas, B.M. Kariuki, G.K. Lim, K.D.M. Harris, Y. Joly, J. Phys. Conf. Ser., 2013, 13, 132015.


7. X-ray Birefringence: A New Strategy for Determining Molecular Orientation in Materials

B. A. Palmer, G.R.E. Edwards-Gau, A. Morte-Rodenas, B.M. Kariuki, G.K. Lim, K.D.M Harris, I.P. Dolbnya, S.P. Collins. J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2012, 2, 3216-3222.

Highlighted in the Diamond Annual Review 2013

6. Reactions in Solid-State Inclusion Compounds, Supramolecular Chemistry: From Molecules to Nanomaterials

(Ed: J.W. Steed and P.A. Gale), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2012, Volume 4, pp. 1589-1612.

K.D.M. Harris, B. A. Palmer, G.R. Edwards-Gau.

5. Structural Rationalisation of the Phase Transition Behaviour in a Solid Organic Inclusion Compound: Bromocyclohexane/Thiourea

B. A. Palmer, B.M. Kariuki, A. Morte-Rodenas, K.D.M. Harris, Cryst. Growth Des., 2012, 12, 577-582.


4. X-ray Birefringence from a Model Anisotropic Crystal

B. A. Palmer, A. Morte-Rodenas, B.M. Kariuki, K.D.M. Harris, S.P. Collins. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2011, 2, 2346-2351.


3. An Incommensurate Thiourea Inclusion Compound

B. A. Palmer, B.M. Kariuki, V.K. Muppidi, C.E. Hughes, K.D.M. Harris. Chem. Comm. 2011, 47, 3760-3762.


2. A Strategy for Retrospectively Mapping the Growth History of a Crystal

B. A. Palmer, K.D.M. Harris, F. Guillaume, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 5096-5100.

Highlighted in Chemical & Engineering News


1. Electrochemical Studies of Irreversibly Adsorbed Ethyl Pyruvate on Pt{hkl} and Epitaxial    Pd/Pt{hkl} Adlayers

O. A. Hazzazi, S.E. Huxter, R. Taylor, B. A. Palmer, L. Gilbert, G.A. Attard. J. Electroanal. Chem. 2010, 640, 8-16.

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